phonological awareness assessment

the purposes of this article are to (a) clarify some of the salient findings from research on phonological awareness and reading and (b) translate those findings into practical information for teachers of children with learning disabilities or children who are experiencing delays in early reading. phonological awareness involves the auditory and oral manipulation of sounds. early reading is dependent on having some understanding of the internal structure of words, and explicit instruction in phonological awareness skills is very effective in promoting early reading. (1998) concluded that phonological awareness can be developed before reading and that it facilitates the subsequent acquisition of reading skills. instruction in phonological awareness can be fun, engaging, and age appropriate, but the picture is not as simple as it seems. assessment in phonological awareness serves essentially two purposes: to initially identify students who appear to be at risk for difficulty in acquiring beginning reading skills and to regularly monitor the progress of students who are receiving instruction in phonological awareness. unlike rapid naming, segmentation is a skill that can be taught, and the instruction of segmentation benefits reading acquisition. after the first semester of first grade, teachers may also be interested in monitoring their students’ progress in generalizing phonemic awareness to reading and spelling. the measure is administered to small groups of 6 to 10 children and is untimed. the examiner asks students to delete one phoneme from the beginning, middle, or end of a word and to say the word that remains. our description of the role that phonological awareness plays in reading development conspicuously fails to address the connection of phonological awareness and spelling. phonemic awareness and letter knowledge in the child’s acquisition of the alphabetic principle.




evaluation of a program to teach phonemic awareness to young children. the alphabetic principle and learning to read. phonemic knowledge and learning to read are reciprocal: a longitudinal study of first grade children. the neurobiology of reading and reading disability. contributions of phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming ability to the growth of word-reading skills in second- to fifth-grade children. phonemic awareness and letter knowledge in the child’s acquisition of the alphabetic principle. suggestions for examining phonics and decoding instruction in supplementary reading programs. the relationship between phonological awareness and reading and spelling achievement eleven years later. the neurobiology of reading and reading disability. unpublished paper prepared for the committee on the prevention of reading difficulties in young children. contributions of phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming ability to the growth of word-reading skills in second- to fifth-grade children. naming speed and reading: the contribution of the cognitive neurosciences.

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